It occurs in bacteria and some species in a pure way. Transformation is also brought about be artificial means. Compounds that bear the capacity of getting transformation by their own or by artificial means are termed as capable. Genetic material can be traded between two different bacterial cells by conjugation or transduction. Conjugation involves direct transfer of genetic material from one cell to another through contact. Introduction of the foreign DNA into the eukaryotic cells is called transfection. Transduction may also be utilized as a instrument for the introduction of foreign DNA into a non-bacterial mobile that might be either a plant cell or an animal cell.

Transformation was initially demonstrated through an English bacteriologist Frederick Griffith in 1928 who was looking for a vaccine against bacterial pneumonia. Transgender Bio-Hacking found a harmless strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae could be produced virulent if subjected to the heat killed virulent strains. He suspected that there is some shifting variable present that has the potential for making the benign and non-virulent strain to become virulent and dangerous. Later on in 1944 this transforming variable was found to be associated with genetics and recognized by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty. They isolated the DNA from the virulent strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae and with the help of the genetic material they were able to create the harmless non-virulent strain. They called this uptake and incorporation of DNA from the bacteria as transforamation. Transformation did not come to be the normal procedure until 1972 when Stanley Cohen, Annie Chang and Leslie Hsu successfully transformed Escherichia coli by fixing the bacteria with calcium chloride. They created an efficient and suitable process that became a milestone in the field of biotechnology and research.

Transformation by using electroporation was developed in the late 1980s once the efficiency and the number of bacterial cells can be raised via conversion. Transformation of plant cell and animal cell was also started and the first transgenic mouse was produced in 1982. In 1907 a bacterium named as Agrobacterium tumefaciens was discovered which was in charge of inducing tumors in the plants along with the tumor inducing agent was found to be DNA plasmid called Ti-plasmid. Bacterial transformation could be predicted as a secure genetic change brought about by uptake of foreign DNA and competence might be defined as the condition of having the ability to choose the exogenous DNA from the environment. Competence may be natural or artificial. About 1% of the bacterial population can take the DNA naturally under the laboratory conditions and many more species have been known to take up the foreign DNA in their natural surroundings. These bacteria carry a set of enzymes that supply the protein machines to deliver the DNA across the cell membrane.